The study has been published in th

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BEIJING [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/eddie-murray-jersey/]Orioles Eddie Murray Jersey[/url] , July 28 (Xinhua) -- China's central bank on Friday continued to pump money into the interbank market via reverse repos to ensure stable liquidity.

The People's Bank of China (PBOC) conducted 100 billion yuan (nearly 15 billion U.S. dollars) of seven-day reverse repos with an interest rate of 2.45 percent, and 40 billion yuan of 14-day reverse repos with an interest rate of 2.6 percent.

Offset by 100 billion yuan of maturing operations, the move resulted in a net injection of 40 billion yuan.

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There was a total of 280 billion yuan of net cash injections for financial institutions from Monday to Friday, down from 510 billion yuan a week ago.

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China set the tone of its monetary policy in 2017 as prudent and neutral, keeping an appropriate liquidity level but avoiding excessive injections.

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CHICAGO, Aug. 10 (Xinhua) -- Researchers in materials scienceand mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan (UM) havedeveloped a new technique that can change plastic's molecularstructure to help it cast off heat.

The new technique uses a process that engineers the structure ofthe material itself [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/darren-oday-jersey/]Orioles Darren O'Day Jersey[/url] , considering the nature of plastics made oflong chains of molecules that are tightly coiled and tangled like abowl of spaghetti.

It used a chemical process to expand and straighten the moleculechains, giving heat energy a more direct route through thematerial. To accomplish this, the researchers first dissolved atypical polymer, or plastic in water [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/zach-britton-jersey/]Orioles Zach Britton Jersey[/url] , then added electrolytes tothe solution to raise its pH, making it alkaline.

The individual links in the polymer chain, called monomers, takeon a negative charge [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/mark-trumbo-jersey/]Orioles Mark Trumbo Jersey[/url] , which causes them to repel each other. As themonomers spread apart, they unfurl the chain's tight coils.Finally, water and polymer solution is sprayed onto plates using acommon industrial process called spin casting, which reconstitutesit into a solid plastic film.

The uncoiled molecule chains within the plastic make it easierfor heat to travel through it.

Researchers also found that the process has a secondary benefit:it stiffens the polymer chains and helps them pack together moretightly [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/joey-rickard-jersey/]Orioles Joey Rickard Jersey[/url] , making them even more thermally conductive.

"Polymer molecules conduct heat by vibrating, and a stiffermolecule chain can vibrate more easily," said Apoorv Shanker, amaterials science and engineering graduate student who has been inthe research team led by UM materials science and engineeringprofessor Jinsang Kim. "Think of a tightly stretched guitar stringcompared to a loosely coiled piece of twine. The guitar string willvibrate when plucked [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/chris-davis-jersey/]Orioles Chris Davis Jersey[/url] , the twine won't. Polymer molecule chainsbehave in a similar way."

The process is a major departure from previous approaches, whichhave focused on adding metallic or ceramic fillers to plastics, aprocess that is expensive as well as can change the properties ofthe plastic in undesirable ways.

The work has important consequences because of the large numberof polymer applications where temperature is important.

"Researchers have long studied ways to modify the molecularstructure of polymers to engineer their mechanical, optical orelectronic properties [url=http://www.cheapjerseysorioles.com/adam-jones-jersey/]Orioles Adam Jones Jersey[/url] , but very few studies have examined moleculardesign approaches to engineer their thermal properties," said UMassociate professor of mechanical engineering Kevin Pipe. "Whileheat flow in materials is often a complex process, even smallimprovements in the thermal conductivities of polymers can have alarge technological impact."

The study has been published in the journal Science Advances.Enditem

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